Window Functions parte 1

Fala pessoal!

neste vídeo mostro bem rapidamente como utilizar as Window Function com as funções de classificação do T-SQL. Vamos aprofundar um pouco no módulo seguinte!

Aqui está o código (retirei do Simple Talk e da apresentação do Fabiano no SQLSAT 100, as fontes estão logo em cima!)

[code language=”sql”]
–cria a base de dados
/*fonte: https://www.simple-talk.com/sql/t-sql-programming/sql-server-2012-window-function-basics/
outras fontes: http://blogfabiano.com/?s=sql+saturday+100 */
USE TSQL2012;
GO

IF OBJECT_ID(‘RegionalSales’, ‘U’) IS NOT NULL
DROP TABLE RegionalSales;
GO

CREATE TABLE RegionalSales
(
SalesID INT NOT NULL IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY,
SalesGroup NVARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
Country NVARCHAR(30) NOT NULL,
AnnualSales INT NOT NULL
);
GO

INSERT INTO RegionalSales
(SalesGroup, Country, AnnualSales)
VALUES
(‘North America’, ‘United States’, 22000),
(‘North America’, ‘Canada’, 32000),
(‘North America’, ‘Mexico’, 28000),
(‘Europe’, ‘France’, 19000),
(‘Europe’, ‘Germany’, 22000),
(‘Europe’, ‘Italy’, 18000),
(‘Europe’, ‘Greece’, 16000),
(‘Europe’, ‘Spain’, 16000),
(‘Europe’, ‘United Kingdom’, 32000),
(‘Pacific’, ‘Australia’, 18000),
(‘Pacific’, ‘China’, 28000),
(‘Pacific’, ‘Singapore’, 21000),
(‘Pacific’, ‘New Zealand’, 18000),
(‘Pacific’, ‘Thailand’, 17000),
(‘Pacific’, ‘Malaysia’, 19000),
(‘Pacific’, ‘Japan’, 22000);
GO
———————————————————————————————————————————–
–sintaxe b�sica:

<window function> OVER
(
[ PARTITION BY <expression> [, … n] ] –define a janela
[ ORDER BY <expression> [ASC|DESC] [, … n] ] –define a ordem dos dados dentro da janela
[ ROWS|RANGE <window frame> ] –frame, ou moldura, define em quais linhas a fun��o � calculada
)
go

—————————————————————————————————————
–fun��es de RANKING:
–ranking functions:
–a janela � a tabela toda:
–ORDER BY OBRIGAT�RIO:
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS RowNumber,
RANK() OVER(ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS BasicRank,
DENSE_RANK() OVER(ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS DenseRank,
NTILE(3) OVER(ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS NTileRank
FROM
RegionalSales;
go
————————————————————–
–ordena��o diferente
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS RowNumber,
RANK() OVER(ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS BasicRank,
DENSE_RANK() OVER(ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS DenseRank,
NTILE(3) OVER(ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS NTileRank
FROM
RegionalSales
ORDER BY
SalesGroup, Country;

————————————————————-
–defini��o de janela: SALESGROUP
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS RowNumber,
RANK() OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS BasicRank,
DENSE_RANK() OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS DenseRank,
NTILE(3) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS NTileRank
FROM
RegionalSales;
————————————————————
–utilizando fun��es de agrupamento em janelas:
–grouping functions:

SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
COUNT(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup) AS CountryCount,–janela � SALESGROUP, contar quantos existem
SUM(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup) AS TotalSales, –soma total de vendas por SALESGROUP
AVG(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup) AS AverageSales –m�dia por SALESGROUP
FROM
RegionalSales
ORDER BY
SalesGroup, AnnualSales DESC;

—————————————–
–igual, menos colunas
SELECT DISTINCT
SalesGroup,
COUNT(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup) AS CountryCount,
SUM(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup) AS TotalSales,
AVG(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup) AS AverageSales
FROM
RegionalSales
ORDER BY
TotalSales DESC;
——————————————–
–AGRUPANDO E ORDENANDO
–grouping with ordering: each grouping column is different!
–duplicate are aggregated together
/*
The default setting for the ROWS/RANGE subclause is RANGE BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND CURRENT ROW.
This means that, for each row in the partition, the window function is applied to the current row and the preceding rows only.
So aggregations don�t operate on the entire set of values within the partition, but only on the value in the current row and the previous rows,
as we saw in the example below.
*/

–contagem a partir de dentro da janela, ordenando do maior valor de venda at� o menor, agregando da primeira linha at� a atual.
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
COUNT(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS CountryCount,
SUM(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS TotalSales,
AVG(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS AverageSales
FROM
RegionalSales ;
————————————————————————————————
–PALAVRAS-CHAVE: PRECEDING -> anteriores, FOLLOWING -> seguintes
–CURRENT ROW -> linha atual
–UNBOUNDED -> sem limite, a partir da primeira ou at� a �ltima

–IGUAL com a defini��o de frame padr�o:
–RANGE considera valores iguais como o mesmo, GREECE e SPAIN, agregando apenas um deles:

SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
COUNT(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
  range between unbounded preceding and current row) AS CountryCount,
SUM(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
  range between unbounded preceding and current row) AS TotalSales,
AVG(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
  range between unbounded preceding and current row) AS AverageSales
FROM
RegionalSales ;
—————————————————————————
–ROWS considera cada linha como um valor a ser agregado, normalmente � o mais utilizado
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
COUNT(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
  rows between unbounded preceding and current row) AS CountryCount,
SUM(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
  rows between unbounded preceding and current row) AS TotalSales,
AVG(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
  rows between unbounded preceding and current row) AS AverageSales
FROM
RegionalSales ;
————————————————————————————-
–fa�a a agrega��o apenas com as 2 linhas anteriores:
–only the 2 preceding rows and current
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
COUNT(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
ROWS 2 PRECEDING) AS CountryCount,
SUM(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
ROWS 2 PRECEDING) AS TotalSales,
AVG(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
ROWS 2 PRECEDING) AS AverageSales
FROM
RegionalSales;
——————————————
–fa�a a agrga��o considerando a janela toda:
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
COUNT(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING) AS CountryCount,
SUM(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING) AS TotalSales,
AVG(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING) AS AverageSales
FROM
RegionalSales;

——————————————
–FUN��ES ANAL�ICAS:
–First/Last values – analytic functions
–veja horizontalmente
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
FIRST_VALUE(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS HighestSales, — ordene o valor do maior pro menor, ous seja, o primeiro � o maior, o �ltimo � o menor
LAST_VALUE(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS LowestSales
FROM
RegionalSales;

——————————
–todas as linhas da parti��o!
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
FIRST_VALUE(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS HighestSales,
LAST_VALUE(AnnualSales) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC
ROWS BETWEEN UNBOUNDED PRECEDING AND UNBOUNDED FOLLOWING)
AS LowestSales
FROM
RegionalSales;
—————————-

–LAG: valor de n linhas antes da atual
–LEAD: valor de n linhas depois da atual
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
LAG(AnnualSales, 1) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS PreviousSale,
LEAD(AnnualSales, 1) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS NextSale
FROM
RegionalSales;
—————————-
–tratando nulls:
SELECT
SalesGroup,
Country,
AnnualSales,
LAG(AnnualSales, 1,0) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS PreviousSale,
LEAD(AnnualSales, 1,0) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesGroup
ORDER BY AnnualSales DESC) AS NextSale
FROM
RegionalSales;

[/code]

Abraços e Happy SQL Serving!

Dica relâmpago – Criando um arquivo de determinado tamanho no Windows

Aqueles que estão acostumados com o Linux, conhecem a facilidade de criar um arquivo com o comando TOUCH.

No Windows podemos usar o comando FSUTIL para fazer a mesma coisa.

Um arquivo dummy tem várias utilidades mas a principal é testar tempo de cópia entre um servidor e outro por exemplo!

Para criar um arquivo então utilize a seguinte sintaxe:
FSUTIL FILE CREATENEW <<Caminho e nome do arquivo>> Tamanho em Bytes

Cuidado para o tamanho que deve ser em Bytes!

Até a próxima pessoal!

 

Happy SQL Serving!

Always On Availability Groups nFAQ parte 1

Fala galera, tudo bem por aí?

Sabe aquelas perguntas marotas que a gente tem mas nunca tem tempo pra brincar/testar? Resolvi fazer essa série de Não FAQs (ou perguntas não frequentemente feitas) para vermos o que acontece mesmo no Availability Groups.

Esta foi inspirada por uma pergunta no grupo do SQLManiacs no Whatsapp. Não conhece o SQLManiacs? Cadastre-se já aqui! – Não fazemos SPAM! #Paz

Já se perguntou o que acontece se você cria um arquivo de dados numa replica primária mas o caminho NÃO existe na replica secundária?

Confere aí:

Fiquem à vontade pra sugerir novas perguntas!

Abraço a todos e happy SQL SERVING!